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반도체 제조기술의 이해 현장 최고 전문가들의 결정체

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상품상세정보
ISBN 9791166470677(1166470679)
쪽수 699쪽
크기 185 * 253 * 41 mm /1490g 판형알림

책소개

이 책이 속한 분야

종합적인 반도체 제조업체에서는 이미 패키지와 테스트에 관련된 실무 전문성 있는 책자를 2020년에 발간한 바 있으며 본 책자는 그 후속편이라 할 수 있겠습니다.

이 책자가 반도체업에 종사하는 모든 분들께 도움이 될 것으로 생각하며 특히 메모리 반도체인 DRAM과 NAND의 기본적인 이해 및 FabFabrication,

반도체 공장의 제조공정과 각종 장비에 대한 궁금증 또는 필요성이 있는 직접 관련 업무의 종사자분들, 반도체 산업의 기반이라 할 수있는 재료, 부품, 장비업에 종사하시는 분들,

그리고 교육 현장에서 학생들을 가르치시는 선생님들과 미래의 반도체 세계최고 전문가를 꿈꾸는 대한민국의 많은 희망들께 도움이 될 것으로 기대합니다.

다만 한 가지 아쉬운 점은 산업 보안 등의 이유로 저자들이 담고자 했던 내용들을 온전히 담지 못한것이며, 이에 대해서는 독자 여러분들의 넓은 이해를 구하고자 합니다.

목차

01 반도체 개요
● 반도체 제조기술 개요···················································5
01. 반도체 정의····································································· 7
● 반도체란?···································································7
● 반도체의 종류 ····························································8
02. 반도체 역사···································································· 9
● 트랜지스터 ·································································9
● 메모리 ···································································· 12
● 세계 메모리 반도체 선도하는 대한민국·························· 15
03. 미래 메모리 반도체························································ 17
● 메모리 시장······························································ 17
● 기술적인 한계··························································· 18
● PCRAM 제품·····························································20
● ReRAM 제품 ····························································25
● STT-MRAM 제품·······················································27
● 요약········································································31

02 DRAM Memory 제품
01. DRAM Memory 소개·····················································37
● DRAM이란? ·····························································37
● DRAM 운용 제품별 특징·············································39
02. DRAM 기본 동작 소개···················································· 41
● MOSFET·································································· 41
● DRAM Architecture ··················································45
● 주요 동작 소개··························································48
● SWD, S/A 동작 이해···················································52
● REFRESH ·······························································55
03. DRAM 주요 Process Module·········································57
● ISO / GATE·······························································57
● SAC·········································································59
● SN·········································································· 61
● MLM·······································································62
04. DRAM 변화 방향···························································64
● DRAM Memory 기술 변화 요구···································64

03 NAND Memory 제품
01. NAND FLASH Memory 소개··········································73
● FLASH Memory란?···················································73
● FLASH Memory Market Trend···································· 76
02. NAND FLASH 기본 동작 소개·········································79
● NAND Architecture···················································79
● Erase/Read/Write Operation······································83
● Cell의 형태 및 String 구조···········································93
● ISPP········································································97
● Cell 분포 및 Multi bit cell ···········································99
03. 3D NAND 구조 소개···················································· 103
● 2D NAND와 3D NAND············································103
● PUC 구조·······························································106
● CTF·······································································107
● Pipe와 Pipeless ······················································ 110
● 3D NAND Process Sequence····································111
04. 3D NAND Key Process··············································· 115
● PLUG···································································· 115
● ONOP··································································· 119
● SLIM····································································· 121
05. Future NAND FLASH Memory···································· 123
● 3D Re-NAND·························································123
● 3D Fe-NAND·························································124
● SGVC····································································124

04 Diffusion_Furnace 공정
01. Diffusion 소개···························································· 131
● Diffusion 정의·························································132
● Diffusion 대표 공정 및 소재 소개································133
● Diffusion 대표 장비 소개···········································137
02. Furnace공정 이해······················································· 142
● Diffusion공정 소개··················································142
● Oxidation공정 소개·················································142
● LPCVD·································································· 149
● ALD공정································································160
03. Furnace 장비의 이해 ··················································· 170
● Furnace 장비 소개··················································· 170
● Batch 장비····························································· 171
● Chamber 장비 소개················································· 179
04. 공정과 장비 관리 소개·················································· 186
● 전산 시스템 활용 관리··············································186
● PM········································································186
05. 미래 기술 해결 과제······················································188

05 Diffusion (Ion Implant)
01. Ion Implantation공정 개요··········································· 195
● Ion Implantation공정의 역사와 정의··························· 195
● Ion Implantation 관련 주요 공정································197
● Ion Implantation공정의 주요 장비······························198
● Ion Implantation 장비의 주요 구성·····························200
02. DRAM/NAND Ion Implantation Application·················200
● Well Formation·······················································201
● Threshold Adjust Implant·········································202
● Source/Drain Implant··············································202
● Lightly Doped Drain················································203
03. Ion Implantation 구성과 Hardware······························205
● Gas 구성································································205
● HW 기본 구성·························································208
04. Ion Implantation Physics············································ 217
● Scattering 현상······················································· 218
● Stopping Mechanism··············································· 218
● Ion Projection Range···············································221
● Channeling Effect···················································222
● Shadowing Effect···················································224
● Damage Engineering···············································225
● Annealing······························································227
● RTA 도입 및 특징·····················································228
● 이온주입 후의 Monitoring 방법··································230
05. Ion Implantation 관련 미래 기술···································232
● Cold & Hot Implantation··········································232
● Plasma Doping·······················································233
● Co Implantation······················································235
● Advanced Anneal···················································237

06 Thinfilm_ CVD 공정
01. CVD공정 소개 ····························································245
● CVD공정 정의·························································246
02. CVD공정의 역할 및 이해···············································248
● 절연막 역할····························································248
● Gap fill 특성····························································251
● HARD MASK 역할···················································252
● Low-k 절연막·························································253
03. CVD 제조 Fab 장비의 이해············································254
● 장비 관리 특성························································255
● 주요 부품 특성의 이해··············································257
04. CVD 주요 공정 장비의 소개···········································263
● PE CVD USG공정····················································263
● Thermal CVD BPSG공정··········································264
● PE CVD ARC공정····················································266
● HDP공정································································268
● SOD공정································································271
● PE Nitride공정························································273
● ACL Hard Mask공정·················································273
● Low-k공정·····························································275
● NDC공정································································276
● Gate ON Stack공정·················································277
05. CVD 장비 향후 Trends·················································278

07 Thinfilm_ PVD 공정
01. PVD공정····································································285
● PVD공정 소개·························································285
02. PVD공정의 요구사항····················································286
03. Metal 물질의 특성·······················································286
● Aluminum 물질·······················································287
● Titanium 물질·························································287
● Tungsten 물질························································288
● Cobalt 물질····························································289
● Tantalum 물질························································289
● Copper 물질···························································290
04. PVD 주요 특성의 이해··················································290
● Sheet Resistance····················································290
● Contact Silicide 특성················································291
● EM 현상·································································292
● ALD 방식·······························································293
● Damascene 구조·····················································293
05. PVD공정의 Fab 장비의 이해········································· 294
● Sputter공정 장비·····················································296
● Contact Silicide·······················································300
● ALD TiN 장비·························································302
● CVD W 장비···························································304
● LFW 장비·······························································307
● EP Cu 장비·····························································309
● Cu Barrier Metal 장비·············································· 312
06. PVD공정 향후 Trends·················································· 314

08 Photo 공정
01. Photo공정의 역할························································321
● Photo공정 소개·······················································321
● Photo Process의 이해··············································322
● Photo 장비의 종류···················································324
● Photo에 사용되는 소재·············································328
02. Photo공정·································································330
● Imaging·································································330
● Focus····································································336
● Dose·····································································338
● Leveling·································································339
● Overlay··································································339
● Alignment······························································ 341
● Overlay··································································345
● Overlay Control······················································348
● MASK····································································353
● Photo Resist···························································357
03. Photo 장비·································································363
● Track·····································································363
● Scanner·································································370
04. Photo공정 관리··························································377
● Overlay··································································377
● Incell·····································································379
● CD········································································379
● Defect···································································381
05. Photo 미래 기술··························································382
● 차세대 Photo Graphy 기술········································382
● EUV란···································································386
● 기존 ArF와의 차이점················································387
● EUV 기술의 문제점··················································388

09 Etch 공정
01. Etch 소개···································································397
● 실생활에서 본 Etch Engineering 개요 ························397
02. Etch 기본···································································402
● FAB공정과 반도체 소자············································402
● Etch의 원리와 메커니즘············································408
● 플라즈마 정의와 성질··············································· 413
● Etch 고려사항························································· 419
● Etch공정관리를 위한 결과물······································431
● 식각 가스와 식각 물질 ·············································440
03. Etch 적용과 응용·························································444
● Etch 대표 구조공정··················································444
● Etch 장비 구성과 종류··············································454
● Plasma Source에 따른 Etch 장비 구분························465
04. ETCH 실전, 양산 FAB에서 ETCH 엔지니어 업무··············· 476
● 팹에서의 양산 기술·················································· 476
● Etch 장비의 유지 관리··············································482
● 양산에서 Etch가 가지는 어려움··································487
● Etch 양산 엔지니어의 하루········································489
05. Etch Issue 및 향후 개발 방향········································ 490
● 반도체 미세화 트렌트와 식각 이슈······························490
● 기술적 한계 극복 방안과 기술 발전 방향······················492

10 Cleaning 공정
01. Cleaning공정······························································507
● Cleaning공정 소개···················································507
02. Cleaning Chemical의 종류와 특징 ································ 511
● SPM 세정······························································· 511
● APM 세정······························································· 514
● DHF / BOE 세정······················································ 517
● H3PO4, Phosphoric Acid 세정····································520
● Ozone 세정 ···························································521
● NFAM 세정····························································525
● Function Water 세정················································527
● HF/NH3 Gas 건식 세정·············································531
03. Cleaning 장비의 종류와 특징 ········································534
● Batch Type····························································534
● Wet Single Type·····················································537
● Dry Single Type······················································539
● Scrubber 세정························································542
04. Cleaning공정의 품질 관리와 생산장비 관리····················544
● defect ··································································544
● Uniformity ····························································546
● Contamination ·······················································548
● Fume····································································548
● Cross contamination···············································550
● Selectivity······························································552
● Leaning·································································553
● Flow Rate······························································555
● Temperature··························································557
● Concentration ·······················································559
● Exhaust ······························································· 561
● Pressure ·······························································563
05. Cleaning의 미래기술 ····················································565

11 CMP 공정
01. CMP공정 소개·····························································573
02. CMP공정의 종류와 특징···············································578
● Planarization··························································578
● Isolation·································································580
03. CMP 장비의 구성과 특징··············································582
● Polisher·································································582
● Cleaner··································································584
● EPD······································································587
04. CMP공정의 품질 관리와 생산 장비 관리·························· 591
● Defect, Scratch·······················································591
● Uniformity, APC······················································594
● Slurry ···································································596
● Selectivity······························································599
● Dishing, Erosion······················································600
● Pad ······································································602
● Disk ······································································604
● Membrane·····························································605
● Retainer Ring ·························································609
● Brush ··································································· 610
● Filter ·····································································611
05. CMP의 미래 기술 ························································ 613

12 MI (Metrology & Inspection)
01. Metrology ································································· 619
● Metrology 개론······················································· 619
● Device 박막 두께 측정·············································· 619
● Device 구조/형태 측정·············································624
● 박막 조성/물성 측정·················································629
● 휨 측정··································································636
02. Inspection·································································637
● Inspection 개론·······················································637
● BF/DF 검사·····························································638
● 파티클 카운터························································· 641
● 매크로 검사····························································643
● 전자빔 검사····························································643
03. 공정 계측 응용기술······················································646
● 가상계측································································646
● 측정 검사 기술 동향과 미래······································647

13 반도체 용어해설
반도체 용어해설·································································654

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